Energy governance trilemma and diversity of sources. The case of india

par Rosa DEL RIO DEL VALLE

Projet de thèse en Droit public

Sous la direction de Philippe Terneyre.

Thèses en préparation à Pau , dans le cadre de École doctorale sciences sociales et humanités (Pau, Pyrénées Atlantiques) depuis le 22-09-2016 .


  • Résumé

    1. Background In the early nineteenth century the world's primary energy consumption was close to half a billion tons of oil equivalent. In little more than two hundred years, that consumption grew twenty-seven fold. The two major energy transitions that prioritized the use of coal and oil, together with technological development and electricity generation, made possible the economic and social growth at a rapid pace. Household amenities, utilities, transport and the production of goods are now very different from those of two hundred years ago. However, this increase in energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels underpins some of the international geopolitical changes, regional inequalities and environmental risks. The international power of many states is based on their large oil reserves and capacity to interrupt supply. Worldwide, 1.2 billion people (seventeen percent of the world population) have no access to electricity and more than 2.7 billion (thirty eight percent of the world population) lack of clean kitchen facilities. The concentration of greenhouse gases, a major factor in climate change, has tripled, increasing the average temperature by half Celsius degree. Limiting warming to no more than two degrees has become the de facto target for global climate policy. The energy sector is at a transition point and faces a number of growing challenges. We have to address issues such as scarcity and the depletion of resources, accessibility, affordability, reliability and quality of energy services, and security of energy supply. The policy challenges associated with improving energy security, affordability or energy equity (energy poverty), and meeting decarbonisation targets or environmental sustainability is commonly referred to as the energy policy ‘trilemma’. Energy security is a politicized and multifaceted concept (Sovacool, 2011), which prevents a single definition as many authors have evidenced in their work (see for example Ang, Choong, & Ng, 2015; Sovacool, 2011; Winzer, 2012). However, the majority of experts agree to include in the definition what has become known as the "4 As of energy security": availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptance, introduced by the Center for Energy Research Asia Pacific (APERC) in 2007. This has changed the perception of the risks associated (Kuik, Lima, & Gupta, 2011). Traditionally, energy security was at the core of the realistic prism and, therefore, a purely geopolitical issue. Although it is still primarily seen as a matter of national concern, and thus focused along the dimension of economic strength, today energy security includes other aspects such as technology (e.g. the reliability of electricity supply), the availability of alternative fuels to oil, energy markets (economic affairs and prices) and sometimes, social and environmental issues (Cherp & Jewell, 2011). Lack of access to modern energy services has serious social, economic and health consequences. Despite the undeniable role played by energy in the development of societies, achieve and ensure access to energy services from one part of the world population is still one of the biggest challenges. There is no single definition of "access to energy" or energy poverty. Some studies focus on the amount of energy and type of fuel consumed. Other authors prefer to look at the consumed energy services (heating, electricity and public or private transport). But, as happened with energy security, most authors agree in stressing that these must be adequate, economic, reliable, safe and environmentally sustainable (Reddy, 2000; Aleh Cherp et al., 2012; Gaye, 2007; International Energy Agency (IEA), 2012). The main consequences of climate change are global warming, rising sea levels, more intensified tropical storms, decrease of ice surface, extreme weather conditions, increase of precipitation at high latitudes and decrease in the subtropics, and the changing of microclimates that affect food production. Only when states recognized that the effects and consequences of climate change were a serious threat to their economic and development projections, they linked energy concerns with those from climate. The Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines climate change as "a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods" (Pachauri et al., 2014). Today, the main source of CO2 emissions related to human activity is the generation of electricity. The weight of electricity in the world economy highlights the significance of the choice of the energy source to meet future energy needs. It is necessary to consider a variety of aspects including security (in its broadest sense), emissions of greenhouse gases, the economy, and the values and public policies, all without forgetting the basic requirement of reliability (Yergin, 2011). Many authors and experts have frequently expressed the need for addressing these challenges urgently and simultaneously. Delivering policies which simultaneously address energy security, universal access to affordable energy services, and environmentally sensitive production and use of energy is one of the most formidable challenges facing governments and industry, and requires effective governance on a global, regional and local scale. According to the World Energy Council, these three dimensions are a prerequisite for the prosperity and competitiveness of individual countries. Cherp, Jewell and Goldthau (2011) review the three global energy arenas and argue that governance in each of them can be enhanced through strengthening its linkages with the other two. They defend the need of a global long-term commitment with a high level of integration of energy policies across scales of governance, supply and demand sides of energy systems, and energy technologies. However, the current model seems to be, according to Sovacool and Florini (2012), "full of sound and fury, yet signifies far too little substance". Even within regions with a certain degree of political integration, such the European Union, the Member States have different visions of what an EU energy governance framework should be. The differing domestic political situations and energy mixes result in significant differences in the relative priority afforded to each dimension (House of Lords European Union Committee, 2016). Nevertheless, the number of articles and studies that explicitly refer to the relationships between the different dimensions (though mainly from the dominant perspective of energy security), analyse the reality or the initiative adopted by one country or suggest a way forward is increasing (see Bang, 2010; Bazilian, Hobbs, Blyth, MacGill, & Howells, 2011; M. A. Brown & Sovacool, 2011; S. P. A. Brown & Huntington, 2008; Cherp, Jewell, Vinichenko, Bauer, & De Cian, 2016; Gunningham, 2013; Happer, Philo, & Froggatt, 2012; Pfenninger & Keirstead, 2015; Strambo, Nilsson, & Månsson, 2015). Noting that a significant number of them underline the diversity of energy sources, mainly by increasing the use of the renewables, as the core of the solution. The energy system includes three main elements: primary sources, secondary sources and energy services. The simplest energy systems used only a small number of sources, which are transformed using one or two types of inefficient energy conversion and basic services. Modern energy systems can use many natural sources and numerous (and increasingly efficient) processes to provide a greater number of energy services to meet the needs of complex societies with high energy consumption. In energy policy, diversity is regarded as essential to the energy supply security, efficiency of energy use, and adaptability of energy system (Lo, 2011). It is also seen as a major characteristic of a stable socio-economic system. One of arguments for diversity offered by the experts is that it is necessary for a system’s long-term survival (Ranjan & Hughes, 2014). Diversity is highly associated with sustainability and precaution in energy strategies. It also implies less concentration, as it extends choice of energy sources (supply side) and energy use (demand side), and increases competition. Diversity in energy type and geographic sources is seen as part of an informed and reasoned response to fight against supply risks and is used frequently as a key indicator to assess energy security, financial risk, efficiency of energy use, the environment, and how to catalyse innovation (Cooke, Keppo, & Wolf, 2013; Ghanadan & Koomey, 2005; Jansen, Arkel, & Boots, 2004; Kruyt, van Vuuren, de Vries, & Groenenberg, 2009; Lo, 2011; Stirling, 1994). Diversity is best achieved by a mix of fuel sources and by a preference for domestic supplies (Helm, 2002). But changing the structure of energy sources and increase energy diversity can be difficult for the countries highly depended on the imported energy. 2. Research aim and objectives The energy trilemma is frequently presented as a triangle of concerns relating to economy (energy costs), environment (carbon emissions) and security (energy supply). At global and at national level, the energy system must change. Individual countries will need to deliver and balance their energy trilemma goals while responding to recent international developments. The criteria for any acceptable energy supply will continue to be cost, safety, and security of supply, as well as environmental considerations. Energy sources are at the base of all energy system, therefore, diversity of sources should be considered as one of the main elements while designing and adopting energy policies, both relating to each area and the whole energy system. An analysis model for analyzing the impact of diversity in all three areas simultaneously is needed. This approach is more frequent in the field of qualitative study, but the predominant model within the quantitative analysis is characterized by conducting separate studies for each area. These may be combined later to offer an image of the performance of a specific country as well as to create a ranking of different countries. In addition, the energy matrix seems to be reserved mainly for the field of energy security. An example of this is the Energy Trilemma Index conducted by the World Energy Council (WEC) since 2006. The Index rank measures overall performance and the balance score highlights how well a country manages the trade-offs between the three competing dimensions. The score for each dimension goes from A (the best) to D (the worst). High performers receive the score ‘AAA’ while countries that do not yet perform well receive a ‘DDD’ score. The model proposed in this work will complement this analysis by improving the level of information on the energy system of individual countries, in each area of concern and together, getting a single value of his performance in the energy trilemma. At the same time, due to concerns about climate change and the defence of a sustainable development, an increasing number of actors calls for a greater use of renewable sources and the abandonment of fossil fuels. This position, in its extreme form, contradicts diversity. The result will be, although different, another uniform energy system. Our model will help to assess the balance between the two schemes. Objectives The object of this study is to look critically at the traditional approach to the energy trilemma and to demonstrate that, to be successful, it is necessary to adopt a more holistic strategy. It aims also to develop a methodology to assess (quantitatively where possible) the impact of the diversity of primary energy sources on the three main energy challenges simultaneously. This will help guide policy making by identifying the real effects of the decisions already taken as a base to estimate the future consequences of its continuity and to identify alternative options to determine which will best achieve the objectives instead of analysing the possible effects a posteriori. The study will also contribute to the international debate on energy governance by investigating and extending the concepts of energy security, energy poverty and climate change. It will likewise deepen into the analysis of the energy model and the energy policies adopted by India in the international energy policy context. 3. Research methodology and resources: The study uses a multidisciplinary approach with input from International Relations, Political Science, Political Economy, Law, etc. The study consists of two parts: a theoretical research and a quantitative research. The theoretical part involves the perusal used of mostly published works such as monographs, reports and any other supporting documentation. For the quantitative research, we will collect data related to the India’s energy behaviour from databases of the main international organizations. We will then apply different estimation models using various methods such as ordinary least squares, the standard deviation robust against heteroskedasticity problems and/or autocorrelation. All methods attempt to fit a model to observed data in order to quantify the relationship between groups of variables. Selection of indicators The World Energy Council (WEC) in the elaboration of its Energy Trilemma Index, considers both energy performance and the contextual framework of a country. Energy performance includes supply and demand, the affordability and access of energy, and the environmental impact of the country’s energy use. The contextual framework reflects political, societal, and economic strength. They use 22 indicators across the six dimensions. These respond to a set of principles: relevance; distinctiveness; balance; contextual sensitivity; coverage; robustness; and comparability. We share with the WEC the idea of including indicators not directly related with the energy sector as well as the principles, however, our model will differ in both the number and the selected indicators themselves, and the method used for calculations. Selection of case study India was selected as case study based on its growing importance in the international arena and its particular characteristics. There is no doubt about the impact and importance of India’s energy policy in an integrated and interdependent global energy market. Energy requirement in India is increasing at a very rapid rate. Unlike most developed countries where energy demand has reached saturation stage, in India, the majority of potential energy demand remains unmet. India’s substantial and continuous economic growth is placing enormous demand on its energy resources stressing the demand and supply imbalance. Although India's coal reserves are significant, the average quality of the Indian coal is not very high making necessary to import high quality coal to meet the requirements of steel plants. India also covers more than 70% of its crude oil requirements and part of the petroleum products from crude oil imported (Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics And Programme Implementation, 2015). Self-sufficiency or energy independence is a recurrent theme in the energy policy dialogue in India. To achieve this stage, the government has adopted different strategies of supply or fuel diversification, but placing a stronger emphasis on maximum utilisation of domestic sources, mainly hydro, nuclear and renewable energy. Indian energy policy pursues three main objectives: 1) Provide access to energy for all. Today, nearly one-quarter of its population lacks access to electricity. Besides, the large population of India (it will be soon the most populated country in the world) and the economic growth will bolster energy demand. 2) Improve its energy security. High dependence on imported fuels exposes the country to geopolitical risks and price volatility. 3) Fighting and mitigating the effects of climate change, as long as it does not hinder the success of the other two. Indian policy makers recognize the impacts of climate change and they are engaged in reducing carbon emissions and alleviating environmental degradation, but economic and social development are the priorities. All three are closely related, but sometimes conflict with one another. It is a challenge to maintain a balanced approach in pursuit of all three objectives (Ahn & Graczyk, 2012). Data collection Primary data regarding the composition of the energy mix in India comes from the statistic service of the International Energy Agency. The mix is analysed between 1990 and 2013. The beginning of this period coincides with both, the entering of the global governance concept in the International Relations, hence the concerns about the different issues of the energy trilemma; and with the process of economic liberalization in India and its growth as possible international power what it raises concerns about its energy consumption and sustainable development. Complementing data to calculate the different indices or to be used as individual indicators is obtained from the Indian government or other international databases as needed, such as the World Bank Database, the UN Comtrade Database, and the WTO Statistics Database. One of the main problems of the energy sector is the lack and inaccuracy of some data sets available; therefore, we assume that there may be some missing data for the period regarding one or various indicators. In this case, we will apply the most suitable approach when possible, including the exclusion of the indicator from the analysis.


  • Résumé

    1. Background In the early nineteenth century the world's primary energy consumption was close to half a billion tons of oil equivalent. In little more than two hundred years, that consumption grew twenty-seven fold. The two major energy transitions that prioritized the use of coal and oil, together with technological development and electricity generation, made possible the economic and social growth at a rapid pace. Household amenities, utilities, transport and the production of goods are now very different from those of two hundred years ago. However, this increase in energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels underpins some of the international geopolitical changes, regional inequalities and environmental risks. The international power of many states is based on their large oil reserves and capacity to interrupt supply. Worldwide, 1.2 billion people (seventeen percent of the world population) have no access to electricity and more than 2.7 billion (thirty eight percent of the world population) lack of clean kitchen facilities. The concentration of greenhouse gases, a major factor in climate change, has tripled, increasing the average temperature by half Celsius degree. Limiting warming to no more than two degrees has become the de facto target for global climate policy. The energy sector is at a transition point and faces a number of growing challenges. We have to address issues such as scarcity and the depletion of resources, accessibility, affordability, reliability and quality of energy services, and security of energy supply. The policy challenges associated with improving energy security, affordability or energy equity (energy poverty), and meeting decarbonisation targets or environmental sustainability is commonly referred to as the energy policy ‘trilemma’. Energy security is a politicized and multifaceted concept (Sovacool, 2011), which prevents a single definition as many authors have evidenced in their work (see for example Ang, Choong, & Ng, 2015; Sovacool, 2011; Winzer, 2012). However, the majority of experts agree to include in the definition what has become known as the "4 As of energy security": availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptance, introduced by the Center for Energy Research Asia Pacific (APERC) in 2007. This has changed the perception of the risks associated (Kuik, Lima, & Gupta, 2011). Traditionally, energy security was at the core of the realistic prism and, therefore, a purely geopolitical issue. Although it is still primarily seen as a matter of national concern, and thus focused along the dimension of economic strength, today energy security includes other aspects such as technology (e.g. the reliability of electricity supply), the availability of alternative fuels to oil, energy markets (economic affairs and prices) and sometimes, social and environmental issues (Cherp & Jewell, 2011). Lack of access to modern energy services has serious social, economic and health consequences. Despite the undeniable role played by energy in the development of societies, achieve and ensure access to energy services from one part of the world population is still one of the biggest challenges. There is no single definition of "access to energy" or energy poverty. Some studies focus on the amount of energy and type of fuel consumed. Other authors prefer to look at the consumed energy services (heating, electricity and public or private transport). But, as happened with energy security, most authors agree in stressing that these must be adequate, economic, reliable, safe and environmentally sustainable (Reddy, 2000; Aleh Cherp et al., 2012; Gaye, 2007; International Energy Agency (IEA), 2012). The main consequences of climate change are global warming, rising sea levels, more intensified tropical storms, decrease of ice surface, extreme weather conditions, increase of precipitation at high latitudes and decrease in the subtropics, and the changing of microclimates that affect food production. Only when states recognized that the effects and consequences of climate change were a serious threat to their economic and development projections, they linked energy concerns with those from climate. The Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines climate change as "a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods" (Pachauri et al., 2014). Today, the main source of CO2 emissions related to human activity is the generation of electricity. The weight of electricity in the world economy highlights the significance of the choice of the energy source to meet future energy needs. It is necessary to consider a variety of aspects including security (in its broadest sense), emissions of greenhouse gases, the economy, and the values and public policies, all without forgetting the basic requirement of reliability (Yergin, 2011). Many authors and experts have frequently expressed the need for addressing these challenges urgently and simultaneously. Delivering policies which simultaneously address energy security, universal access to affordable energy services, and environmentally sensitive production and use of energy is one of the most formidable challenges facing governments and industry, and requires effective governance on a global, regional and local scale. According to the World Energy Council, these three dimensions are a prerequisite for the prosperity and competitiveness of individual countries. Cherp, Jewell and Goldthau (2011) review the three global energy arenas and argue that governance in each of them can be enhanced through strengthening its linkages with the other two. They defend the need of a global long-term commitment with a high level of integration of energy policies across scales of governance, supply and demand sides of energy systems, and energy technologies. However, the current model seems to be, according to Sovacool and Florini (2012), "full of sound and fury, yet signifies far too little substance". Even within regions with a certain degree of political integration, such the European Union, the Member States have different visions of what an EU energy governance framework should be. The differing domestic political situations and energy mixes result in significant differences in the relative priority afforded to each dimension (House of Lords European Union Committee, 2016). Nevertheless, the number of articles and studies that explicitly refer to the relationships between the different dimensions (though mainly from the dominant perspective of energy security), analyse the reality or the initiative adopted by one country or suggest a way forward is increasing (see Bang, 2010; Bazilian, Hobbs, Blyth, MacGill, & Howells, 2011; M. A. Brown & Sovacool, 2011; S. P. A. Brown & Huntington, 2008; Cherp, Jewell, Vinichenko, Bauer, & De Cian, 2016; Gunningham, 2013; Happer, Philo, & Froggatt, 2012; Pfenninger & Keirstead, 2015; Strambo, Nilsson, & Månsson, 2015). Noting that a significant number of them underline the diversity of energy sources, mainly by increasing the use of the renewables, as the core of the solution. The energy system includes three main elements: primary sources, secondary sources and energy services. The simplest energy systems used only a small number of sources, which are transformed using one or two types of inefficient energy conversion and basic services. Modern energy systems can use many natural sources and numerous (and increasingly efficient) processes to provide a greater number of energy services to meet the needs of complex societies with high energy consumption. In energy policy, diversity is regarded as essential to the energy supply security, efficiency of energy use, and adaptability of energy system (Lo, 2011). It is also seen as a major characteristic of a stable socio-economic system. One of arguments for diversity offered by the experts is that it is necessary for a system’s long-term survival (Ranjan & Hughes, 2014). Diversity is highly associated with sustainability and precaution in energy strategies. It also implies less concentration, as it extends choice of energy sources (supply side) and energy use (demand side), and increases competition. Diversity in energy type and geographic sources is seen as part of an informed and reasoned response to fight against supply risks and is used frequently as a key indicator to assess energy security, financial risk, efficiency of energy use, the environment, and how to catalyse innovation (Cooke, Keppo, & Wolf, 2013; Ghanadan & Koomey, 2005; Jansen, Arkel, & Boots, 2004; Kruyt, van Vuuren, de Vries, & Groenenberg, 2009; Lo, 2011; Stirling, 1994). Diversity is best achieved by a mix of fuel sources and by a preference for domestic supplies (Helm, 2002). But changing the structure of energy sources and increase energy diversity can be difficult for the countries highly depended on the imported energy. 2. Research aim and objectives The energy trilemma is frequently presented as a triangle of concerns relating to economy (energy costs), environment (carbon emissions) and security (energy supply). At global and at national level, the energy system must change. Individual countries will need to deliver and balance their energy trilemma goals while responding to recent international developments. The criteria for any acceptable energy supply will continue to be cost, safety, and security of supply, as well as environmental considerations. Energy sources are at the base of all energy system, therefore, diversity of sources should be considered as one of the main elements while designing and adopting energy policies, both relating to each area and the whole energy system. An analysis model for analyzing the impact of diversity in all three areas simultaneously is needed. This approach is more frequent in the field of qualitative study, but the predominant model within the quantitative analysis is characterized by conducting separate studies for each area. These may be combined later to offer an image of the performance of a specific country as well as to create a ranking of different countries. In addition, the energy matrix seems to be reserved mainly for the field of energy security. An example of this is the Energy Trilemma Index conducted by the World Energy Council (WEC) since 2006. The Index rank measures overall performance and the balance score highlights how well a country manages the trade-offs between the three competing dimensions. The score for each dimension goes from A (the best) to D (the worst). High performers receive the score ‘AAA’ while countries that do not yet perform well receive a ‘DDD’ score. The model proposed in this work will complement this analysis by improving the level of information on the energy system of individual countries, in each area of concern and together, getting a single value of his performance in the energy trilemma. At the same time, due to concerns about climate change and the defence of a sustainable development, an increasing number of actors calls for a greater use of renewable sources and the abandonment of fossil fuels. This position, in its extreme form, contradicts diversity. The result will be, although different, another uniform energy system. Our model will help to assess the balance between the two schemes. Objectives The object of this study is to look critically at the traditional approach to the energy trilemma and to demonstrate that, to be successful, it is necessary to adopt a more holistic strategy. It aims also to develop a methodology to assess (quantitatively where possible) the impact of the diversity of primary energy sources on the three main energy challenges simultaneously. This will help guide policy making by identifying the real effects of the decisions already taken as a base to estimate the future consequences of its continuity and to identify alternative options to determine which will best achieve the objectives instead of analysing the possible effects a posteriori. The study will also contribute to the international debate on energy governance by investigating and extending the concepts of energy security, energy poverty and climate change. It will likewise deepen into the analysis of the energy model and the energy policies adopted by India in the international energy policy context. 3. Research methodology and resources: The study uses a multidisciplinary approach with input from International Relations, Political Science, Political Economy, Law, etc. The study consists of two parts: a theoretical research and a quantitative research. The theoretical part involves the perusal used of mostly published works such as monographs, reports and any other supporting documentation. For the quantitative research, we will collect data related to the India’s energy behaviour from databases of the main international organizations. We will then apply different estimation models using various methods such as ordinary least squares, the standard deviation robust against heteroskedasticity problems and/or autocorrelation. All methods attempt to fit a model to observed data in order to quantify the relationship between groups of variables. Selection of indicators The World Energy Council (WEC) in the elaboration of its Energy Trilemma Index, considers both energy performance and the contextual framework of a country. Energy performance includes supply and demand, the affordability and access of energy, and the environmental impact of the country’s energy use. The contextual framework reflects political, societal, and economic strength. They use 22 indicators across the six dimensions. These respond to a set of principles: relevance; distinctiveness; balance; contextual sensitivity; coverage; robustness; and comparability. We share with the WEC the idea of including indicators not directly related with the energy sector as well as the principles, however, our model will differ in both the number and the selected indicators themselves, and the method used for calculations. Selection of case study India was selected as case study based on its growing importance in the international arena and its particular characteristics. There is no doubt about the impact and importance of India’s energy policy in an integrated and interdependent global energy market. Energy requirement in India is increasing at a very rapid rate. Unlike most developed countries where energy demand has reached saturation stage, in India, the majority of potential energy demand remains unmet. India’s substantial and continuous economic growth is placing enormous demand on its energy resources stressing the demand and supply imbalance. Although India's coal reserves are significant, the average quality of the Indian coal is not very high making necessary to import high quality coal to meet the requirements of steel plants. India also covers more than 70% of its crude oil requirements and part of the petroleum products from crude oil imported (Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics And Programme Implementation, 2015). Self-sufficiency or energy independence is a recurrent theme in the energy policy dialogue in India. To achieve this stage, the government has adopted different strategies of supply or fuel diversification, but placing a stronger emphasis on maximum utilisation of domestic sources, mainly hydro, nuclear and renewable energy. Indian energy policy pursues three main objectives: 1) Provide access to energy for all. Today, nearly one-quarter of its population lacks access to electricity. Besides, the large population of India (it will be soon the most populated country in the world) and the economic growth will bolster energy demand. 2) Improve its energy security. High dependence on imported fuels exposes the country to geopolitical risks and price volatility. 3) Fighting and mitigating the effects of climate change, as long as it does not hinder the success of the other two. Indian policy makers recognize the impacts of climate change and they are engaged in reducing carbon emissions and alleviating environmental degradation, but economic and social development are the priorities. All three are closely related, but sometimes conflict with one another. It is a challenge to maintain a balanced approach in pursuit of all three objectives (Ahn & Graczyk, 2012). Data collection Primary data regarding the composition of the energy mix in India comes from the statistic service of the International Energy Agency. The mix is analysed between 1990 and 2013. The beginning of this period coincides with both, the entering of the global governance concept in the International Relations, hence the concerns about the different issues of the energy trilemma; and with the process of economic liberalization in India and its growth as possible international power what it raises concerns about its energy consumption and sustainable development. Complementing data to calculate the different indices or to be used as individual indicators is obtained from the Indian government or other international databases as needed, such as the World Bank Database, the UN Comtrade Database, and the WTO Statistics Database. One of the main problems of the energy sector is the lack and inaccuracy of some data sets available; therefore, we assume that there may be some missing data for the period regarding one or various indicators. In this case, we will apply the most suitable approach when possible, including the exclusion of the indicator from the analysis.