Thèse de doctorat en Biologie et biotechnologie
Sous la direction de Michèle Lieberherr.
Soutenue en 2002
à Paris 7 .
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activity. Phytoestrogen-rich diets may prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis and these molecules maintain bone mass in ovariectomized animals. We compared the effects of the isoflavone daidzein, which has no action on tyrosine kinases, and 17-estradiol on the development and activity of osteoclasts in vitro. Nonadherent porcine bone marrow cells were cultured on dentine slices or on culture slides in the presence of 10-8 M of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], with or without 10-8 M of daidzein, 10-8 M of 17-estradiol for 9-11 days. Multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) cells that resorbed bone (osteoclasts) developed in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3. The number of osteoclasts formed in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 was reduced by 58 ± 8% by daidzein and 52 ± 5% by estrogen (p < 0. 01); these effects were reversed by 10-6 M of ICI 182,780. The area resorbed by mature osteoclasts was reduced by 39 ± 5% by daidzein and 42 ± 6% by estradiol (p < 0. 01). Both compounds also inhibited the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced differentiation of osteoclast progenitors (mononucleated TRAP+ cells), 53 ± 8% by daidzein and 50 ± 7% by estradiol (p < 0. 05). Moreover, daidzein and estradiol promoted caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation of monocytic bone marrow cells. Caspase-3 cleavage was reversed by 10-8 M of ICI 182,780. Both compounds up-regulated the expression of nuclear estrogen receptors ER- and ER-. Thus, daidzein, at the same concentration as 17-estradiol, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and activity. This may be caused by, at least in part, greater apoptosis of osteoclast progenitors mediated by ERs.
Phytoestrogens and bone resorbing activity
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